Difference Between Simple Past And Past Perfect In Hindi

The Dutch use the simple past tense to refer to an event that took place in the past. In addition, as what my professor told us before, when we use the past perfect tense of the verb we should not indicate the time expression. (First action) We arrived at 10. Difference between present perfect and present perfect continuous tenses. Each tense when applied to the verb indicates the time when the action happened (past), happens (present), or will happen (future). The following are some examples that show the use of past participles with the different perfect tenses. Click here to review how to make the past simple. We use both of these to talk about things in the past which we don. It might occur with or without adverbs of time. ” Spanish past participles work almost the same way. Past Perfect Continuous Structure. There is more than one difference between the simple past and the present perfect. With an astounding amount of NFL scouts present, Herbert provided highlights that won’t soon be forgotten by Oregon fans, Colorado’s defense or the professional teams with a top-10 draft selection. I have lived in this city for. Learn the difference between Past Simple and Present Perfect Tense with useful grammar rules and examples. The Italian Simple Past Tense: Il Passato Remoto. Comparison simple past and past continuous. The grammar focus is on the past continuous and past simple. A powerful and flexible, yet easy to use tool for creating online gap-filling exercises as well as drag & drop, dropdown and multiple choice quizzes. It is formed by combining the auxiliary verb had with the past participle of the main verb. Congratulations and keep up the good work! Share Your Results. He always carries a bag. They arrived three weeks – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow. She taught math ten years ago. Past participles are used for all perfect tense forms of a verb and in the passive voice in English. Football had been played by me. Present Perfect vs. You Understand the Difference! You know your English!. Use the past simple to talk about a specific moment in the past. The present perfect is used for actions that began in the past that have a connection to the present and the past simple is used for actions that have begun and ended in the past. समय के सन्दर्भ में To complete this description it is important that it be described in relation to time - past, present or future. There are three times: past, present and future. Second, it tells us that the exact time of the action is unknown or unimportant. (already / when). By slightly modifying the verb, you can change the sentence from past tense to present tense. USED TO is used to express something that you did frequently in the past. Verb Tense Review: The Past Simple. It sometimes refers to contrast: something you used to do in the past, but don’t do anymore; or something you didn’t use to do in the past, but you do now. present perfect activity, students play a true or false game where they make present perfect statements and ask and answer 'Wh' questions in the past simple. Amidst a storm of home runs that would defy any and all meteorological metaphors, a singular confrontation in early August served as a reminder of what is still special about the game. Congratulations and keep up the good work! Share Your Results. Present Perfect. The men haven't talked about the women. Past Perfect Tense Exercises With Answers. Just like the Present Perfect Tense from Lesson #110, we first start with a simple Past Tense sentence first, so for example we can say… मैं नौ बजे गया main nau baje gayaa - I went at nine o'clock (said by a male). Past Perfect Continuous. The word “send” is a verb which means “to cause to go or to be taken somewhere” while the word “sent” is a conjugation of the verb “send. Complete the sentences with the appropriate word. Only one option is correct. 13 Oregon’s. If you were really interested in the difference between the perfect tenses and the simple past, the difference is that the perfect tenses have a explicit or implied time reference. The third column is the past participle, which is combined with has (singular) or have (plural) to form the present perfect tense. With a regular verb the past participle ends with -ED (just like the simple past). Tense is a grammatical category which is marked by verb inflection and expresses when an event or action happens in the flow of time. Before giving this worksheet to your students, review and discuss the difference between the Present Simple and Present Continuous tenses. Sometimes, you can use the future perfect tense and the simple future tense interchangeably. There are 2 different activities in which students are asked to match the questions and answers and write the correct form of the verbs in brackets using present perfect and past simple. A presentation on the use of the past continuous and past perfect in English, autonomosly produced by a small group of 16-year-old Italian students. We haven’t had a party for ages. It doesn't tell us anything about when an action happened, so more information needs to be given with this verb form, such as when the action took place. typical perfect in spoken language: "Ich habe das Bad geputzt und danach die Wäsche gewaschen. If you were really interested in the difference between the perfect tenses and the simple past, the difference is that the perfect tenses have a explicit or implied time reference. The past perfect refers to an event that was completed at some point in the past before something else happened. This would provide a clear idea to understand the knowledge of English grammar and will be helpful in framing better sente. Past simple or present perfect practice. More specifically, we'll look at the difference between the simple past and present perfect tenses. This exercise focuses on the difference between the present perfect simple and present perfect continuous. 1l ames had cooked breakfast when we got up. Brenda Goodman is a senior news writer for WebMD. graduated 8. In both the domestic and international game, past glories are increasingly shown off on and around the badge – but it's not always obvious exactly what achievements they denote 30 October ~ Football is a game of chaos and a perfect example of its random nature is the supposedly simple matter of the club crest. Past vs Past Perfect. Best Answer: I walked to the shop is past simple and means I walked there once, at the time I'm referring to, in a complete action which is finished. In the following sentences, do we need the past simple form of the verb, or the past perfect? The first two questions should remind you when we use each tense. Simple past. The past participle is a verb form that’s typically used with perfect tenses. Andy Miller is editor and CEO of Georgia Health News. Elicit what tense we use to talk about present habits. It depends on context as always! Many novels use the past tense as their main tense, so a past perfect or past perfect continuous is necessary to express earlier actions/events. Time words with "in the" and without "in the" have different meanings. We use present simple passive voice tense to talk about the actions of daily activities, habitual actions and universal truth. The difference between Past Simple and Present Perfect worksheet. Difference between present perfect and simple past tenses. Unfortunately for irregular verbs there are no rules and it is just a matter of practice. I wrote a letter at 7 o'clock. Whats the difference between simple past, present and future? perfect past, present, and future? continuous past, present and future? and perfect continuous past, present and future? Please give examples or sites if you can. 1) Used to talk about a finished action in the past, often with time expressions like yesterday, last week, a year ago etc. We use the simple past: 1. The covered uses are The use of past simple which interrupts an action in progress in the past. The past perfect continuous tense (also called the past perfect progressive tense) is used to describe an action that began and was still in progress in the past before another past action started. Test yourself with our free English language quiz about 'Past Simple, Progressive Perfect'. When I left university, I went to work for a private school. Today's topic is the difference between the simple past and present perfect verb tenses. Past & Present's Viewpoints seek to provoke or advance debate, open up new questions, define the state or direction of a particular field, or shape trends in historiography at a more general level — always in a way that is comprehensible to non-specialists. Free English online grammar exercises - fill in present perfect simple or past simple. Tense In British English, the present perfect tense is used a lot more than in American English. Once students learn a new tense, in this case probably the present perfect, review other tenses that might be confused with it so that students can learn the subtleties of each tense that they may not have noticed the first time around. Click here to review how to make the past simple. I have been working with them for ten years. There are three tenses in English: past, present, and future. PAST SIMPLE or PRESENT PERFECT? This worksheet includes a grammar guide on the difference between the two tenses. You will hear some people say I seen it, when they should say I saw it. Past Tense useful, let others know about it: Grammar Notes A variety of English grammar notes and rules including charts and examples for beginner to advanced level students. The past perfect refers to a time earlier than before now. In your sentence, "discovered" is simple past and "had won" is past perfect. eg present perfect or past. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Zhao, Dandan; Niu, Lu; Wang, Luxia. You Understand the Difference! You know your English!. Present Perfect: I have eaten. PAST SIMPLE or PRESENT PERFECT? This worksheet includes a grammar guide on the difference between the two tenses. The past perfect is very similar to the present perfect because the event also started in the past. Past Perfect vs Past Perfect Continuous Differences in Usage The past perfect tense expresses a past action, already finished when another past action happened; the past perfect continuous tense describes a past action which started in the past and continued to happen after another action or time in the past. There are two types of perfect tenses; simple perfect tenses (present perfect, past perfect and future perfect) and progressive perfect tenses (present perfect progressive, past perfect progressive and future perfect progressive). Learning English. " "When did you see it?" "I saw it last week. The present perfect simple suggests completion while the continuous suggests something is unfinished. ' 'Bill Gates had made millions of dollars before he was 30. olone au who aid you do at uhool today? Ha Did you watch Hhe Mi Did you readl He book ? ave w sLen darn? wheur did you hee Sam. The past perfect is used to show that an event finished before another event, while the past simple shows an event finished. The class is divided into groups of 14 and each student is given a sentence card. Tommy on January 29, 2017 3:31 am. He has published over 200 scient. " This is a present tense verb. eg present perfect or past. Use your imagination to answer the questions in the simple past. A sentence in the simple-past form describes an event that occurred in the past: “They agreed. The present perfect tense is a present tense and as such it cannot used with definite past time expressions like yesterday. -) we use the past simple to talk about a complete event in the past. Both present perfect and past perfect talk about something that happened before a point in time (reference point). Past perfect simple ( I had worked ) - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary. In contrast with the past perfect simple tense, which emphasises the result of a completed action, the past perfect continuous focuses on the duration or the activity itself: The difference between the past perfect and the past perfect continuous | Grammaring. It is usually used to express an action which occurred a long time ago in past. Tenses - English to English Translation Simple Past Tense (Past Indefinite. Complete the sentences below by putting the verb in brackets into the present perfect simple or present perfect continuous. This tense describes something that happened in the past, but that is related to something in the present. Past Simple vs Past Continuous: Complete the following sentences with the correct verb forms. , verbs that implicitly have a definite completion to them, like "to promise" or "to start" or "to finish"),. It is also used for past habits. to refer to events that took place in the past and do not have any relevance to the present. hi can anyone expalin to me what the difference is between past perfect and simple past in passive mode? when i arrived the window was broken. We have many members of the forum who are leaning English and who find the difference between the present perfect and the simple past difficult. Choose another student give them the straight line that represents the past simple. 1 How have you tried to keep fit and healthy? I’ve joined a health club. / We have been to the new shopping mall. Present Perfect. Therefore, we can say the Present Perfect is a kind of connection between the past and present. Sign up now to enroll in courses, follow best educators, interact with the community and track your progress. Here is another example for the same contrast: I went home at 7. When I arrived (arrive) at the station, the train had already left (already, leave). A “tense” is described as “a set of forms that a verb takes to indicate the time of action, completeness, or continuance of any action. I hope that this lesson and accompanying exercise will be helpful. In this lesson we look at the structure and use of the Past Perfect Continuous tense, followed by a quiz to check your understanding. Brenda Goodman is a senior news writer for WebMD. English learning simple Past or present perfect. I cannot understand what the difference is. This compound tense is formed by adding the past participle to the auxiliary verb had. You formulate by using the past tense of the verb, "to have", followed by the past participle of the main verb. Difference Between Have Been And Had Been. Unfortunately for irregular verbs there are no rules and it is just a matter of practice. this lesson is an overview of the present perfect tense. The only difference between simple past and past perfect is to describe the definite completion of an action. A simple comment that the past tense refers to events in the past serves as an adequate explanation. Another thumbs up for CL from me, and I'll go on to read more of their books! This was a print read for me, and I have to say it was a relief on the eyes and for the brain--reading more digitally lately by necessity now, I really feel the difference when I have the chance to sink down into a paperback with all its simple, satisfying presence. We have a new chart for you: Was and Were – To Be in the past tense. Each student is given a copy of the worksheet. "Have you seen the new Mission Impossible film?" "Yes, I have. For the conjugation of the past participle, we must distinguish between t-verbs and d-verbs (just like we did for the simple past ). If you found this grammar guide about the Present vs. The students are divided into groups of four and each group is given a set of cards. Learn English Today Free materials and resources for learners of English. Check Your Understanding. The two tenses are important in scientific writing because most of the work we describe takes place before we write about it. / We have been to the new shopping mall. The past perfect simple is: had + past participle: 'By the time Sue went shopping, the shops had closed. Past Tense vs. Present Perfect, Past Perfect and Past Simple Complete with the right tense. Get the Step-by-Step Guide to the Simple Past Tense. were playing 4. It looks like you're new here. She taught math ten years ago. What’s the difference between these two verb forms? What’s the difference between. • Past participle is also used in the third conditional. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. So I cannot understand detail meaning between them. In your sentence, "discovered" is simple past and "had won" is past perfect. Comparison simple past and past continuous. With the present perfect, the exact time of the action or event is not given. An action that started in the past and continues to the present. The main purpose is to demonstrate a sequence of events, so the past perfect is more appropriate before another event. very beautifully you have explained differences between to Passives and past participle as adjectives. Click here to return to the list of English grammar exercises. Free English online grammar exercises - fill in present perfect simple or past simple. If the simple past does NOT end in -ed, the past participle is probably different from the simple past. Simple Past and Present Perfect are two tenses that confuse many English learners. July 19, 2017 October 6, 2019 englishstudy adverbs of time, differences between present perfect and simple past tense, differences between present perfect tense and present perfect continuous, present perfect simple, present perfect tense, present perfect tense in english, present tenses, structures of present perfect tense, tenses in english. Past vs Past Perfect. The past participle is commonly used in several situations:. com - id: 448401-NTI2Y. However, the difference between the events is that the past perfect event also ended in the past. On the next page, you can read more about the use of this tense. It includes all the materials and worksheets you need to teach this tense effectively. Use contractions where possible. Past Continuous. The simplest difference is the grammatical difference that the simple past can be used with expressions which signify a definite, particular time in the past. Most often, the reason to write a verb in the past perfect tense is to show that it happened before other actions in the same sentence that are described by verbs in the simple past tense. Learning English. The grammar focus is on the past continuous and past simple. Simple Past and Past Continuous. There are, however, a number of so-called irregular verbs, (including, unfortunately, some very common verbs such as to be and to have) whose various forms must be memorized. Click Here for English Short Stories for Beginners or Children Before reading through, make sure you are familiar with the usage and rules of this tense – visit the Past Perfect Progressive page. Past simple and continuous - answer key 2 https://www. The present perfect tells us that an action started in the past and it is still. it is the form of a verb that you use to make the sentence past tense. If you found this grammar guide about the Present vs. Simple past or Past Continuous (Past Progressive) Comparison of Tenses Simple Past or Past Perfect Comparison of Tenses English Tenses exercises Simple present tense Simple past tense Present Perfect Past perfect Future 1 Future perfect Going-to-future Active and passive voice If clauses - conditionals Reported speech. Andy Miller is editor and CEO of Georgia Health News. Let's now talk about the following sentence you are confused about: "Everyone went home when Sara had got to the party". That put UMass’ previously perfect penalty kill to the test early in the first and the streak ended at 26-for-26, when Brendan van Riemsdyk tipped a shot from the point past Filip Lindberg to. You must always use the Simple past when details about the time or place that an action occured are given or requested. Elicit what the difference is between using the past simple and used to. It shows something that started in the past, but continues until now. Online exercises Comparison of tenses, Comparison of tenses questions and Comparison of tenses negative sentences. were playing 4. (Before doing the exercises you may want to read the lesson on the past perfect simple and continuous) Write the past participle of the following irregular verbs. Past perfect simple, past perfect continuous (English exercise n°9553 - Please quote >>> Search pages about this theme: search EXERCISES OF PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS PAST CONTINUOUS PAST on our 100% free site to learn English. Before talking about the differences between the simple past and past continuous, let's review their verb conjugations. After the edit, it asked (which it should have earlier), the past perfect continuous. The Italian Simple Past Tense: Il Passato Remoto. In the following sentences, do we need the past simple form of the verb, or the past perfect? The first two questions should remind you when we use each tense. I have had enough of your complaining! Have is the auxiliary (or helping) verb and had is the V3 (or past participle) of the main verb to have. the main events of a story. Unfortunately for irregular verbs there are no rules and it is just a matter of practice. when i arrived the window had been broken. Past perfect is for things that happened before the simple past. Past perfect simple or past simple? - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary. Try the Past Perfect lesson in the Grammar Practice Worksheets section. Sign up now to enroll in courses, follow best educators, interact with the community and track your progress. Simple Past Tense (Past Indefinite) - Hindi to English Translation पहचान : इस Tense के वाक्यों मे काम का करना या होना भूतकाल मे पाया जाता है । ऐसे वाक्यों के अन्त मे 'आ', 'या ', 'ई '. Note on questions 3 & 6: There is a possibility of both being correct BUT as we have two actions in the past and the homework happened first, it is better to use past perfect. In the present perfect, our reference point is the present. Amidst a storm of home runs that would defy any and all meteorological metaphors, a singular confrontation in early August served as a reminder of what is still special about the game. When I (arrive) home last night, I discovered that 2. Verb tenses are an attribute of verbs that tell us about time. In this lesson we look at the structure and use of the Past Perfect Continuous tense, followed by a quiz to check your understanding. In British English, only the present perfect tense is used in situations where an action that occurred in the recent past that has some effect on the present. Simple Past and Past Continuous. When I (arrive) home last night, I discovered that 2. Simple Past and Past Progressive 1, by Dennis Oliver American Language and Culture Program, Arizona State University Special Instructions: After answering *all* the. Past Perfect vs Past Perfect Continuous Differences in Usage The past perfect tense expresses a past action, already finished when another past action happened; the past perfect continuous tense describes a past action which started in the past and continued to happen after another action or time in the past. However, to fully understand the difference between past and present perfect one should see how they are used together. This is a worksheet for teaching the differences between the present perfect and the past simple tense. Re: Games to teach the difference between past simple and present perfect tense? Although it sounds a bit odd, I've had some success using magazine ads, photographs, and postcards. We CAN'T use the present perfect with a finished time word: NOT: I've been to the museum yesterday. We also have this chart about using Was and Were in short answers. For example, the past participle of "eat" is "eaten. The two tenses are important in scientific writing because most of the work we describe takes place before we write about it. com, and I realised that I wanted to share both with my friends on the Internet. The past continuous vs. "Have you seen the new Mission Impossible film?" "Yes, I have. The past perfect tense is formed with the past tense of the auxiliary verb have, which is had and the past participle of a main verb (e. The point emphasized is on the activity in the time before the interruption. Students > English File Student's Site > New Intermediate > Grammar > File 1 > Lesson B past tenses: simple, continuous, perfect (2) Grammar; Help; How Words Work. Free English online grammar exercises - fill in present perfect simple or past simple. Difference between present perfect and present perfect continuous tenses. My teacher told me that 'Present perfect tense' occurred in the past, but still related to present. In the past perfect, our reference point is in the past. Past Simple Tense (Past Indefinite) Definition: The past simple tense expresses actions, facts, or events that were started and completed in the past. In this lesson, you will learn the difference between the present perfect and simple past tense. He took a long walk every morning. Discover ideas about English Grammar Exercises. The answer key is included. I cannot understand what the difference is. पूर्ण भूत (Past Perfect Tense) The past perfect tense is used to indicate that an action occurred before another action in the past. Present perfect Vs. We use the simple past tense for actions that began and finished in the past. “He finished university in 1975”, is the past perfect. the difference between present perfect tense (we have gone) and simple past tense (we went) this video is about "present perfect tense'. Find conjugation of pass. 1 How have you tried to keep fit and healthy? I’ve joined a health club. Present Perfect is used for something that started in the past and continues to the present. It gives a sense of completion of an activity in past. Most verbs can be put into either tense, depending upon the meaning. What is the difference between Past and Past Participle? • Past is sometimes referred to as simple past. They have gone for a walk. Past Perfect Continuous Tense is used to express a past action which started in the past and continued to happen after another action or time in the past. narrative past form → simple past She (sit) down at a table outside the café and (look) at the menu. It is often used for a sequence of actions. hi can anyone expalin to me what the difference is between past perfect and simple past in passive mode? when i arrived the window was broken. The past perfect simple, to refer to the action that happened first or earlier; The past simple to refer to the action that happened second or later; Sometimes the past perfect simple is used on its own and the action that took place afterwards is understood. The action has been "completed". (First action) We arrived at 10. Main Difference Between the Simple Past and the Present Perfect We use the Simple Past when we simply want. So we can also understand Past Simple by writing sentence one as "She wrote a letter yesterday. Best Answer: I walked to the shop is past simple and means I walked there once, at the time I'm referring to, in a complete action which is finished. We use Simple Past if we give past events in the order in which they occured. It is the same difference as exists in English between perfect and simple verbs. Passive Voice: Past. The recent Past tense describe completion of an action that took place over a period of time in the past. Past Tense useful, let others know about it: Grammar Notes A variety of English grammar notes and rules including charts and examples for beginner to advanced level students. Thank you so much everyone. English Grammar in Urdu/Hindi #EnglishGrammarinUrdu #LearnEnglishinUrdu #EnglishWithAb. By VOA 08 May, 2015. To indicate an action completed, often occurring with an adverb of time. Will you please explain the difference between the past perfect, preterite and imperfect tenses? It was pointed out that I do NOT know the difference well enough to educate others on the topic but, in an effort to be a "lifelong learner" I would greatly appreciate a proper explanation using actual English sentences (and Spanish. David Laurila: Max Scherzer said the following when I interviewed him way back in 2010: “I’m a very mathematical guy. Definition in Hindi For Indian Users: ये वाक्य 2 प्रकार के होते हैं।. Past Perfect is one of English past tenses used to indicate that one of 2 past actions took place before another like in a sentence: I had written my homework before I went for a walk. Although some grammars identify anywhere between twelve and sixteen English tenses, the nineteen finite, or conjugated, verb forms in English express more than just tense. However, to fully understand the difference between past and present perfect one should see how they are used together. Tense is a grammatical category which is marked by verb inflection and expresses when an event or action happens in the flow of time. There it was, playing out in. The difference between a regular and an irregular verb is the formation of the simple past and past participle. The difference between passed and past. In the English language, tenses hold a very important place. Difference between present perfect and past simple tenses in Hindi - by uzma rukhsar in English Grammar with examples in Hindi For SSC CGL, BANK Present Perfect vs Simple Past Tense. Note the difference between these two sentences from the story: Everyone stared at her. for example, in the sentence, "i had a cookie," the word "had" is the past participle. Here are some basic guidelines: simple tense is used for a finite action that occurred one time, “I swam last wednesday. Quarterback Justin Herbert gave the people the show that they’ve longed for. In this week's episode of Everyday Grammar we're going to help you understand the difference between the simple past and the present perfect. Learn the difference between Past Simple and Present Perfect Tense with useful grammar rules and examples. When we talk about our life relationships in English, we use both the present perfect and past simple tenses. Past Perfect is used for something that started in the past and continued up to a given point in the past. When you arrived, I had already finished. Verb Tense Review: The Past Simple. The Past Perfect Simple is made by adding the past participle (usually the verb form ending in –ed, but there are irregular verbs) to had, which does not change according its subject. PAST SIMPLE or PRESENT PERFECT? This worksheet includes a grammar guide on the difference between the two tenses. The past simple in the first sentence expresses a momentary, completed action, whereas the past continuous in the second sentence expresses an action in progress. As you can see in the past perfect tense, the auxiliary verb had is used with both singular and plural nouns. Past simple and continuous - answer key 2 https://www. The perfect and pluperfect tenses are indentical in aspect though different in time. They have different forms for positive statements (regular verbs: I play - I played, irregular verbs: I go - I went), but questions and negatives are made in the same way. There are three times: past, present and future. PRESENT PERFECT We can say that something hasn’t happened for a long time or since a specific time in the past. Past Simple. Tenses - English to English Translation Simple Past Tense (Past Indefinite. Example: मैंने मिठाई खाई है। (I have eaten sweets. The difference between the present tense and the present perfect (i. Bahito from Algeria asks: Could you please explain to me the exact difference between the uses of the present perfect and past simple tenses, especially when asking questions?. Thus, it is often used with time adverbials such as last night, some time ago, in 1985, earlier today, at six o clock this morning, the last time, the first time, etc. The key difference between past perfect and past perfect continuous is that past perfect indicates the completion of an event in the past but, past perfect continues implies that an event or action in the past was still continuing. The present perfect simple suggests completion while the continuous suggests something is unfinished. Get an answer for 'What is the difference between the "past simple tense" and the "past perfect tense"?? give examples' and find homework help for other Grammar questions at eNotes. Past Perfect or Past Simple Exercise 1 Choose the past perfect or the past simple. In the following sentences, do we need the past simple form of the verb, or the past perfect? The first two questions should remind you when we use each tense. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Zhao, Dandan; Niu, Lu; Wang, Luxia. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: